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Margin collapsing

Source: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/margin_collapsing

Top and bottom margins of blocks (y轴方向上的margin、padding、width、height等对行内元素无意义,行内元素的高度可通过line-height来设置) are sometimes combined (collapsed) into a single margin whose size is the largest of the margins combined into it, a behavior known as margin collapsing.

Margin collapsing occurs in three basic cases:

Adjacent siblings

The margins of adjacent siblings are collapsed (except when the later sibling needs to be cleared past floats). For example:

Parent and first/last child

If there is no border, padding, inline content, or clearance to separate the margin-top of a block with the margin-top of its first child block, or no border, padding, inline content, height, min-height, or max-height to separate the margin-bottom of a block with the margin-bottom of its last child, then those margins collapse. The collapsed margin ends up outside the parent.

Empty blocks

If there is no border, padding, inline content, height, or min-height to separate a block’s margin-top from its margin-bottom, then its top and bottom margins collapse.

These rules apply even to margins that are zero, so the margin of a first/last child ends up outside its parent (according to the rules above) whether or not the parent’s margin is zero.

When negative margins are involved, the size of the collapsed margin is the sum of the largest positive margin and the smallest (most negative) negative margin.

Margins of floating and absolutely positioned elements never collapse.

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