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HTML reference

Reference: http://www.htmlcssvqs.com/8ed/appendixes/html-reference.php

There are two tables below: Table A.1 lists global attributes, which you apply to most HTML elements; Table A.2 contains HTML elements and their specific (that is, not global) attributes. Each element has a short description and an annotated list of its associated attributes.

Consult www.caniuse.com and findmebyip.com/litmus for the latest on browser support for the HTML5 features.

Table A.1 HTML Global Attributes – The following attributes may be used with most HTML elements
Global Attribute Description Version
  accesskey For adding a keyboard shortcut to an element
aria-* For associating accessibility attribute values specified by WAI-ARIA 5
class For identifying a set of elements in order to apply styles to them
contenteditable For making the content of an element editable 5
contextmenu For identifying a contextual menu for an element (the value must be the same as a menu element’s id attribute) 5
data-* For storing custom data that is private to the page or application 5
dir For specifying the element’s text direction
draggable For making an element draggable 5
dropzone For identifying an element as a place where draggable elements can be dropped 5
event For associating an element with a script (event is a placeholder for the actual event name)
hidden For indicating that an element is not yet relevant or is no longer relevant 5
id For identifying a particular element so that it can be linked to, styled, or scripted with JavaScript
lang For specifying the language an element is written in
role For providing additional information to assistive devices about the role of an element as defined by WAI-ARIA 5
spellcheck For indicating whether the content of an element should have its spelling and grammar checked 5
style For adding local style sheet information
tabindex For defining the order in which the Tab key takes the visitor through elements
title For labeling elements with tool tips
Table A.2 HTML Elements and Attributes
Element/ Attribute(s) Description Version
a For creating links and anchors
  href For specifying the URL of a page or the name of an anchor that a link goes to
hreflang For specifying the language of the linked resource 5
media For describing the media for which the target document was defined 5
rel For identifying the nature of the link
target For specifying the window or iframe where a link should open *
type For noting a resource’s MIME type
abbr For explaining the meaning of abbreviations and acronyms *
address For identifying contact information for the nearest article or body element ancestor
area For specifying the coordinates of image maps
accesskey For adding a keyboard shortcut to a particular region of the map
alt For giving information about an area
coords For giving the coordinates of an area in an image map
href For specifying the destination URL of a link in an area of an image map
hreflang For specifying the language of the linked resource 5
media For describing the media for which the target document was defined 5
rel For identifying the kind of link
shape For specifying the shape of an area in an image map
target For specifying the window or iframe where a link should open *
article For identifying a self-contained composition in a page that is in principle independently distributable or reusable 5
aside For identifying a section of a page that consists of content that is tangentially related to the content around it 5
audio For embedding sound or audio in a page 5
autoplay For telling the browser to start playing the audio file as soon as it can 5
controls For telling the browser to provide controls for the audio element 5
crossorigin For setting cross-origin request credentials 5
loop For telling the audio file to start over without interruption upon reaching its end 5
mediagroup For associating multiple media files together 5
muted For controlling the default state of audio output 5
preload For specifying whether the browser can begin downloading the audio file before the visitor starts playing it 5
src For identifying the URL of the audio file to play 5
b For identifying a span of text to which attention is being drawn for utilitarian purposes, without conveying any extra importance and with no implication of an alternate voice or mood *
base For specifying the base URL of the page
href For specifying the URL to be used to generate relative URLs
target For specifying the default target for the links on the page *
bdi For identifying a span of text that is to be isolated from its surroundings for the purposes of bidirectional text formatting 5
dir For specifying text direction 5
bdo For explicitly formatting the text direction of its content
dir For specifying text direction
blockquote For identifying a section quoted from another source
cite For giving the URL of the source
body For enclosing the main content area of a page
br For creating a line break
button For creating buttons
autofocus For specifying that the button is to be focused as soon as the page is loaded 5
disabled For indicating that the element is not available in the current state
form For associating the element with a form that it is not a part of 5
formaction For overriding the form’s action attribute 5
formenctype For overriding the form’s enctype attribute 5
formmethod For overriding the form’s method attribute 5
formnovalidate For overriding the form’s novalidate attribute 5
formtarget For overriding the form’s target attribute 5
name For identifying the data sent with a button, or for identifying the button itself (perhaps for a JavaScript function)
type For using the button in a form element
value For specifying the data that should be submitted when the button is clicked
canvas To provide scripts with a resolution-dependent bitmap canvas for rendering graphics on the fly 5
width, height For specifying the size of the canvas 5
caption For creating a caption for a table
cite For marking text as a citation
code For marking text as computer code
col For joining columns in a table into a non-structural group
span For specifying the number of columns in a column group
colgroup For joining columns in a table into a structural column group
span For specifying the number of columns in a column group
command For representing a command the user can invoke, such as defining a keyboard command 5
checked For indicating the checked state of the command (if the command type is “checkbox” or “radio”) 5
disabled For indicating that the command is not available in the current state 5
icon For providing an image that represents the command 5
label For showing the name of the command to the user 5
radiogroup For identifying the radio buttons that will be toggled when the command is toggled (if the command type is “radio”) 5
type For indicating the type of command 5
datalist To contain a group of option elements that represent a predefined set of options for another form control 5
dd For marking a definition in a list
details For creating a disclosure widget from which the visitor can obtain additional information or controls 5
open For specifying whether the element is open or closed by default 5
del To mark deleted text
cite For referencing a URL that explains the change
datetime For specifying the time and date of the change
dfn For specifying the defining instance of a term
title For providing the definition of the term
div For dividing a page into block-level sections
dl For creating a definition list
dt For marking a term to be defined in a list
em To mark text that has stress emphasis *
embed For adding multimedia *
src For specifying the URL of a multimedia file
type For identifying the MIME type of the multimedia file
width, height For specifying the size of the embedded multimedia player
fieldset For grouping a set of form elements together
disabled For disabling all form controls within the fieldset 5
form For associating the element with a form that it is not a part of 5
name For providing the fieldset with a name for use later 5
figcaption For identifying a caption or legend for the contents of its parent figure element 5
figure For identifying content that is referenced within the main flow of the document but that could be moved elsewhere without affecting the flow of the document 5
footer For identifying a footer for the nearest ancestor body, section, article, or aside element 5
form For designating a form to collect data for submission
accept-charset For identifying the character encoding to be used with the form submission (defaults to the page’s character set)
action For giving the URL of the script that will process the form data
autocomplete For preventing the browser from providing/remembering autocompletion values when the attribute is set to “off” (the default is “on”; that is, autocompletion is allowed by default) 5
enctype For making sure files are sent to the server in the proper format
method For specifying how data should be sent to the server
name For providing the form with a name for use later
novalidate For allowing the form to be submitted without validation 5
target For identifying the target window or iframe of the form’s submission *
h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 For creating headings
head For creating the head section, which contains information about the page, including the title, author, keywords, style sheets, and scripts
header For identifying a group of introductory content or navigational aids 5
hgroup For identifying the heading of a section when a heading has multiple levels 5
hr For identifying a paragraph-level thematic break *
html For identifying a text document as an HTML document
manifest For specifying an application cache manifest that is used when the page is offline 5
i For marking a span of text that is in an alternate voice or mood or that is otherwise offset from the normal prose in a manner indicating a different quality of text *
iframe For creating a nested browsing context *
name For specifying the name of the iframe, to be used as a target
sandbox For specifying additional restrictions on the content of the iframe, for security purposes 5
seamless For specifying whether the iframe should appear to be part of the containing page 5
src For specifying the URL of the initial page
srcdoc For specifying the URL of the initial page 5
width, height For specifying the size of the iframe
img For inserting images on a page
alt For offering alternate text that is displayed if the image is not and that is for users of assistive devices
crossorigin For allowing images from third-party sites (that allow cross-origin access) to be used with the canvas element
ismap For indicating that the element provides access to a server-side image map (the element must be a descendant of an a element)
src For specifying the URL of an image
usemap For specifying the client-side image map that should be used with the referenced image
width, height For specifying the size of an image so that the page is loaded more quickly, or for scaling
input For creating form elements
accept For informing the browser what file types will be accepted if the input type is “file”
alt For providing a textual alternate if the input type is “image”
autocomplete For preventing the browser from providing/remembering autocompletion values when the attribute is set to “off” (the default is “on”; that is, autocompletion is allowed by default) 5
autofocus For specifying that the input is to be focused as soon as the page is loaded 5
checked For marking a radio button or checkbox by default
dirname For identifying the direction of the entered text 5
disabled For indicating that the input is not available in the current state
form For associating the element with a form that it is not a part of 5
formaction For overriding the form’s action attribute 5
formenctype For overriding the form’s enctype attribute 5
formmethod For overriding the form’s method attribute 5
formnovalidate For overriding the form’s novalidate attribute 5
formtarget For overriding the form’s target attribute 5
list For associating the input with a datalist 5
max, min For indicating the input element’s allowed range of values 5
maxlength For specifying the maximum number of characters that can be entered in an input element
multiple For specifying whether the user can be allowed to enter more than one value 5
name For identifying data collected by an element
pattern For providing a regular expression against which the input element’s value is checked 5
placeholder For providing a hint to aid in data entry 5
readonly For keeping visitors from changing certain form elements
required For identifying that the element must not be blank to submit the form (not allowed when the input type is “hidden,” “image,” or some button types) 5
size For specifying the length of a text or password box
src For specifying the URL of an active image
step For controlling the granularity and specificity of allowed values 5
type For specifying if a form element is a text box, password box, radio button, checkbox, hidden field, submit button, reset button, active image, date/time box, number box, or color box; for selecting from a range of values; or for entering a telephone number, email address, or set of search terms *
value For specifying the default data in a form element
width, height For specifying the dimensions of the input (only allowed when the input type is “image”) *
ins For marking an addition to the document
cite For referencing a URL that explains the change
datetime For specifying the time and date of the change
kbd For marking user input
keygen For generating a public and private key pair 5
autofocus For specifying that the keygen element is to be focused as soon as the page is loaded 5
challenge For generating a challenge to go along with the key pair 5
disabled For indicating that the element is not available in the current state 5
form For associating the element with a form that it is not a part of 5
keytype For identifying the kind of key pair to be generated 5
name For identifying the data that is gathered 5
label For labeling form elements
for For specifying which form element the label belongs to
form For associating the element with a form that it is not a part of 5
legend For labeling fieldsets
li For creating a list item
value For determining the initial value of the list item (if it is the child of an ol) *
link For linking to an external style sheet or other external resource
href For specifying the URL of the resource
hreflang For specifying the language of the linked resource 5
media For defining a style sheet’s targeted media types and/or media features
rel For identifying the kind of link
sizes For identifying the size of the referenced icon (for use only when the rel attribute is “icon”) 5
title For labeling an alternate style sheet or other resource
type For noting a resource’s MIME type (only required if the link type is not “text/css”)
map For creating a client-side image map
name For naming a map so it can be referenced later
mark For highlighting text for reference purposes due to its relevance in another context 5
math For embedding MathML in the page 5
menu For containing a list of commands *
label For labeling the menu 5
type For identifying the kind of menu being used: “context,” “list” (default), or “toolbar” 5
meta For associating various kinds of metadata with the page
charset For identifying the character encoding of the page itself 5
content For adding extra information about the page itself
http-equiv For creating automatic jumps to other pages, setting the default scripting language, and declaring the character encoding
name For identifying extra information about the page
meter For representing a measurement within a known range 5
high, low For specifying a range of values as being “high” or “low” 5
max, min For identifying the maximum and minimum allowable values 5
name For identifying the data that is gathered 5
optimum For identifying the optimum value 5
value For indicating the current value of the meter (required) 5
nav For identifying a section of a page that links to other pages or to parts within the page 5
noscript For providing alternatives to scripts
object For embedding objects in Web pages
data For identifying the source of the multimedia file to be embedded
form For associating the element with a form that it is not a part of 5
name For identifying the object (e.g., so it can be scripted)
type For noting the object’s MIME type
typemustmatch For indicating that the resource specified in the object’s data attribute must have the same MIME type as identified in the object’s type attribute (allowed only if the object’s data and type are both specified)
usemap For indicating whether the object has an associated image map
width, height For specifying the dimensions of the object’s box
ol For creating ordered lists
reversed For specifying whether the list is descending (. . . , 3, 2, 1) 5
start For specifying the initial value of the first list item *
type For specifying the kind of numerals that should begin each list item *
optgroup For grouping a set of option elements under a common label within a select element
disabled For indicating that the element is not available in the current state
label For labeling the group of options
option For creating the individual options in a select or datalist element
disabled For indicating that the element is not available in the current state
label For specifying how the option should appear in the menu
selected For making a menu option be selected by default in a blank form
value For specifying the initial value of a menu option
output For representing the result of a calculation 5
for For creating an explicit association between the result of a calculation and the values that went into the calculation 5
form For associating the element with a form that it is not a part of 5
name For identifying the data that is gathered 5
p For creating a paragraph
param For setting properties of an object
name For identifying the kind of property
value For setting the value of the named property
pre For representing a block of preformatted text
progress For identifying the completion progress of a task 5
max Must be a valid floating-point number greater than zero (if present) 5
value Must be a valid floating-point number equal to or greater than zero (and less than or equal to the value of the max attribute, if it is present) 5
q For quoting short passages from another source
cite For giving the URL of the source of the quote
rp For providing parentheses around a ruby text component of a ruby annotation in browsers that don’t support ruby annotations 5
rt For marking the ruby text component of a ruby text annotation 5
ruby For allowing text to be marked up with ruby annotations 5
s For identifying text that is no longer accurate or no longer relevant *
samp For representing sample output from a program or computing system
script For adding “automatic” scripts to a page
async For influencing script loading and execution 5
charset For specifying the character set an external script is written in
defer For influencing script loading and execution
src For referencing an external script
type For specifying the scripting language the script is written in (only required if the script type is not “text/javascript”) *
section For identifying a section of a document 5
select For creating form control for selecting from a set of options
autofocus For specifying that the select element is to be focused as soon as the page is loaded 5
disabled For indicating that the element is not available in the current state
form For associating the element with a form that it is not a part of 5
multiple For allowing users to choose more than one option in the menu
name For identifying the data collected by the menu
required For identifying that the user must select one of the options in order to submit the form (the first child option element must be a placeholder or an empty value) 5
size For specifying the number of items initially visible in the menu (and for displaying the menu as a list)
small For representing side comments such as small print *
source For identifying multiple alternative media resources within an audio or video element 5
crossorigin For setting cross-origin request credentials 5
media For identifying the intended media type of the resource 5
src For identifying the URL of the audio or video file to play 5
type For noting a resource’s MIME type 5
span For wrapping content in an element that has no intrinsic semantic meaning *
strong For indicating strong importance of the element’s content *
style For embedding style information in a page
media For indicating a style sheet’s purpose
scoped For applying styles only to the descendants of the element’s parent 5
type For indicating a style sheet’s MIME type (only required if the style type is not “text/css”) *
sub For creating subscripts
summary For identifying a summary, caption, or legend for the contents of its parent details element 5
sup For creating superscripts
svg For embedding Scalable Vector Graphics in the page 5
table For creating tables
tbody For identifying the body of the table; in contrast with the header (thead) or footer (tfoot)
td, th For creating regular and header cells, respectively, in a table
colspan For spanning a cell across more than one column
rowspan For spanning a cell across more than one row
scope For identifying to which rows, columns, rowgroups, or columngroups a th applies
textarea For creating text block entry areas in a form
autofocus For specifying that the text area is to be focused as soon as the page is loaded 5
dirname For identifying the direction of the entered text 5
disabled For indicating that the element is not available in the current state
form For associating the element with a form that it is not a part of 5
maxlength For specifying the maximum number of characters that can be entered in a textarea
name For identifying the data that is gathered with the text block
placeholder For providing a hint to aid in data entry 5
readonly For protecting a text area’s contents
required For indicating that the element must not be blank in order to submit the form 5
rows, cols For specifying the number of rows and columns in the text block
wrap For specifying the use of soft or hard wraps when content of field is submitted 5
tfoot, thead For identifying the footer and header area of a table
time For specifying a date, a time, or both 5
datetime For providing a machine-readable version of the time or date expressed in the element’s text 5
pubdate For specifying the publication date and time of the element’s ancestor article or body element 5
title For creating the title of the page (required)
tr For creating rows in a table
track For specifying external timed text tracks for the parent audio or video element 5
default For indicating which track is the default 5
kind For identifying whether the track is “subtitles,” “captions,” “descriptions,” “chapters,” or “metadata” 5
label For providing a user-readable name for the track 5
src For identifying the URL of the track’s data 5
srclang For identifying the language of the track’s data 5
u For displaying a span of text with an unarticulated, though explicitly rendered, non-textual annotation *
ul For creating unordered lists
var For marking text as a variable name
video For embedding videos, movies, and captioned audio files 5
autoplay For telling the browser to start playing the video file as soon as it can 5
controls For telling the browser to provide controls for the video element 5
crossorigin For setting cross-origin request credentials 5
loop For telling the video file to start over without interruption upon reaching its end 5
mediagroup For associating multiple media files together 5
muted For controlling the default state of audio output 5
poster For specifying the URL of an image to use as a placeholder while media loads, or in case of an error loading 5
preload For specifying whether the browser can begin downloading the media file before the visitor starts playing it 5
src For identifying the URL of the video file to play 5
width, height For specifying the dimensions of the video 5
wbr For identifying an appropriate place to insert a line-break into a word without hyphenation 5

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