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横店大学口语课(Mar. 16, 2015)

Describing Graphs

Types of Graph

Graph- a diagram representing a system of connnections or interrelations among two or more things by a number of istinctive dots, lines, bars. A diagram to represent a range of numbers.

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distinctive /dɪˈstɪŋktɪv/

  • ADJ Something that is distinctive has a special quality or feature which makes it easily recognizable and diferent from other things of the same type.与众不同的;有特色的
    e.g. the distinctive odour of chlorine 氯气的特殊气味
  • ADV Distinctively 特别的;有特色地

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Line Graph– A graph that uses points connected by lines to show how something changes in value as time goes by.

Pie Chart 饼图– A circular graph having radii dividing the circle into sectors proportional in angle and area to the relative size of the quantities represented.

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radii /ˈreɪdɪˌaɪ/

  • Radii is the plural of .(radius)

plural /ˈplʊərəl/

  • ADJ The plural form of a word is the form that is used when referring to more than one person or thing.复数的
  • N-COUNT The plural of a noun is the form of it that is used to refer to more than one person or thing.复数形式
    e.g. What is the plural of “person”? “person”的复数形式是什么?

radius /ˈreɪdɪəs/

  • N-SING Tha radius around a particular point is the distance from it in any direction.范围
    e.g. Nick has searched for work in a ten-mile radius around his home. Nick已经在以家为中心10英里的范围内寻找工作。
  • N-COUNT Tha radius of a circle is the distance from its centre to its ourside edge.半径
    e.g. He indicated a semicircle with a radius of about thirty miles.他标示出一个半径大约三十英里的半圆。

sector /ˈsɛktə/

  • N-COUNT A particular sector of a country’s economy is the part conected with that specified type of industry. (经济的)部门
    e.g. …the nation’s manufacturing sector. …该国的制造部门。
  • N-COUNT A sector of a large group is a smaller group which is part of it.部分
    e.g. Workers who went to the Gulf came from the poorest sectors of Pakistani society.去海湾的工人们来自巴基斯坦社会最贫穷的阶层。
  • N-COUNT A sector is an area of a city or country which is controlled by a military force.军事管制区
    e.g. Officers were going to retake sectors of the city.军官们打算收回该市的一些军事管制区。

proportional /prəˈpɔːʃənəl/

  • ADJ If one amount is proportional to another, the two amounts increase and decrease at the same rate so there is always the same relationship between them.(与……)成比例的
    e.g. Loss of weight is directly proportional to the rate at which the disease is progressing.体重减轻和该病的发展速度成比例。

angle /ˈæŋɡəl/

  • N-COUNT An angle is the difference in direction between two lines or surfaces. Angles are measured in degrees.角
    e.g. The boat is now leaning at a 30 degree angle.
  • N-COUNT An angle is the shape that is created where two lines or surfaces join together.
    e.g. …the angle of the blade. …刀刃的尖角
  • N-COUNT An angle is the direction from which you look at something.角度
    e.g. Thanks to the angle at which he stood, he could just see the sunset.多亏他站的角度,他刚好能看到日落。
  • N-COUNT You can refer to a way of presenting something or thinking about it as a particular angle.
    e.g. He was considering the idea from all angles.他从所有的视角考虑这个观点。
  • N-COUNT any piece of fishing tackle, esp a hook渔具中的任何部分,尤指鱼钩
  • N-COUNT to fish with a hook and line 用鱼钩和鱼线钓鱼
  • N-COUNT to move in or bend into angles or an angle 斜移进来;折弯成角
  • PHRASE If somethin is at an angle, it is leaning in a particular direction so that it is not straight, horizontal, or vertical.成一定角度
    e.g. An iron bar stuck out at an angle.一根铁条成一定角度地突出来。

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Bar Graph– graph consisting of parallel, usually vertical bars or rectangles with lengths proportional to the frequency with which specified quantities occur in a set of data.

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parallel /ˈpærəˌlɛl/

  • N-COUNT If somethin has a parallel, it is similar to something else, but exists or happens in a different place or at a different time. If it has no parallel or is without parallel, it is not similar to anything else. (存在或发生在不同地点或不同时间的)类似的事情
    e.g. It’s an ecological disaster with no parallel anywhere else in the world.这是一场世界其他任何地方均无等同的生态灾难。
  • N-COUNT If there are parallels between two things, they are similar in some ways.相似之处
    Detailed study of folk music from a variety of countries reveals many close parallels.对不同国家的民乐的详细研究表明它们有很多相似之处。
  • V-T If one thing parallesl another, they happen at the same thing or are similar, and often seem to be connnected. 与……同时发生/相似
    His remarks paralleled those of the president.他的评论与总统的评论相同。
  • ADJ Parallel events or situations happen at the same time as one another, or are similar to one another.同时发生的;相似的
    e.g. …parallel talks between the two countries’s foreign ministers. …两国外长之间相似的谈话。
    e.g. Their insticts do not always run parallel with ours.他们的直觉并不总是与我们的同步。
  • ADJ If two lines, two objects, or two lines of movement are parallel, they are the same distance apart along their whole length. 平行的
    e.g. …seventy-two ships, drawn up in two parallel lines. …72艘船,停靠成两条平行线。
    e.g. Remsen Street is parallel with Montague Street. Remsen大街与Montague大街是平行的。
  • N-COUNT A parallel is an imaginary line round the earth that is parallel to the equator. Parallels are shown on maps. 纬线
    e.g. the area south of the 38th parallel. 38度纬线以南的地区。

equator /ɪˈkweɪtə/

  • N-SING The equator is an imaginary line around the middle of the earth at an equal distance from the North Pole ad the South Pole.赤道

imaginary /ɪˈmædʒɪnərɪ/

  • ADJ An imaginary person, place, or thing exists only in your mind or in a story, and not in real life.假想的
    e.g. Lots of children have imaginary friends. 许多孩子都有假想的朋友。

vertical /ˈvɜːtɪkəl/

  • ADJ Something that is vertical stands or points straight up.垂直的
    e.g. The climber inched up a vertical wall of rock.那名登山者一点点爬上了一处垂直的岩石峭壁。
  • ADV vertically垂直地
    Cut each bulb in half vertically.将每一个球茎垂直切成两半。

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Describing Trends

describing trends

Line Graph

  1. Sales remained constant.
  2. Wages fell gradually.
  3. Inventory declined sharply.
  4. Costs reached a peak and then fell sharply.
  5. Overheads rose sharply.
  6. Production increased gradually and then levelled off.
  7. Supply fluctuated through the period.
  8. Unemployment increased gradually.

go up/go down

increase/fall

climb/decrease

lift/drop

rise/decline

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fluctuate /ˈflʌktjʊˌeɪt/

  • V-I If something fluctuates, it change a lot in an irregular way. 波动
    e.g. Body temperature can flucate if you are ill.
  • N-VAR fluctuation波动
    Don’t worry about tiny fluctuations in your weight.不用担心你体重的轻微波动。

level off /’levlɔf/

  • PHRASAL VERB If a changing number or amount levels off or levels out, it stops increasing or decreasing at such a fast speed. 趋向稳定
    e.g. The figures show evidence that murders in the nation’s capital are beginning to level off.这些数据证明该国首都的凶杀发案率正开始趋向稳定。
  • PHRASAL VERB If an aircraft levels off or levels out, it travels horizontally after having been travellin in an upward or downward direction. (飞机在爬升或俯冲后)水平飞行
    e.g. The aircraft levelled out at about 30,000 feet.飞机在大约三万英尺的高度水平飞行。

financial crisis 金融危机;财政危机

recession /rɪˈsɛʃən/

  • N-VAR A recession is period when the economy of a country is doing badly, for eacmple because industry is producing less and more people are becoming unemployed.经济衰退;萧条
    e.g. The oil price increases sent Europe into deep recession.石油价格的上涨使欧洲陷入严重的经济衰退。

foam /fəʊm/

  • N-COUNT Foam consists of a mass of small bubbles that are formed when air and a liquid are mixed together.泡沫(橡胶);海绵
    e.g. The water curved round the rocks in great bursts of foam.水流卷绕着岩石产生大量的泡沫。
  • N-MASS Foam is used to refer to various kinds of manufactured products which have a soft, light texture like a thick liquid. 泡沫
    e.g. … shaving foam. …剃须泡沫
  • N-MASS Foam or foam rubber is soft rubber full of small holes which is used, for example, to make mattresses and cushions. 泡沫(橡胶);海绵
    e.g. …modern three-piece suites filled with foam rubber. …塞满海绵的现代3件套。

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Listening

I am honored to be with you today for your commencement from one of the finest universities in the world. Truth be told, I never graduated from college. And this is the closest I’ve ever gotten toa college graduation. Today I want to tell you three stories from my lift. That’s it. No big deal. Just three stories.

The first story is about connecting the dots. I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayed around as a drop-in for another 18 months or so before I really quit. So why did I drop out?

It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwed college graduate studuen, and she decided to put me up for adoption. She felt very strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates, so everything was all set for me to be adopted at birth by  a lawyer and his wife. Except that when I popped out they decided at the last minute that they really wanted a girl. So my parents, who were on a waiting list, got a call in the middle of the night asking: “We’ve got an unexpected baby boy; do you want him?” They sad:”Of course.” My biological mother later found out that my mother had never graduated from college and that my father had never graduated from high school. She refused to sign the final adoption papers. She only relented a few months later when my parents promised that I would go to college. This was the start in my life.

And 17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that was almost as expensive as Stanford, and all of my working-class parents’ saving were being spent on my college tuition. After six months, I couldn’t see the value in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life and no idea how college was going to help me figure it out. And here I was spending all of the money my parents had saved their entire life. So I decided to drop out and trust that it would all work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but looking back it was one of the best decisions I ever made. The minute I dropped out I could stop taking the required classes that didn’t interest me, and begin dropping in on the ones that looked far more interesting.

It wasn’t all romantic. I didn’t have a dorm room; so I slept on the floor in friends’ rooms, I returned coke bottles forthe 5 € deposits to buy food with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on. Let me give you one example:

Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Throughout the campus every post, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn’t have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a cazlligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about verying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can’t capture, and I found it fasinating.

None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, it’s likely that no personal computer would have them.

Questions:

How many stories is Steve Jobs going to present? (3)

Did Steve Jobs graduate from college? (No)

Where is he presenting? (Reed College)

What is the first story about?

When did he drop out of college?

Why did he drop out of college?

After dropping out, what did he drop in (take)? (More interesting classes)

What kind of typefaces did he learn in the calligraphy class? (Serif and san serif)

Which company copied the Mac? (Windows)

What was his biological mothers’ hope when she dicided to put him up for adoption?

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unwed /ʌn’wed/

  • adj. of someone who has not been married

biological /ˌbaɪəˈlɒdʒɪkəl/

  • ADJ Biological is used to describe processes and states that occur in the bodies and cells of living things.与生命过程和状态有关的
    e.g. The living organisms somehow concentrated the minerals by biological processes.活的有机物以某种方式随其生命过程聚集了矿物质。
  • ADV biologically与生命过程和状态有关地
  • ADJ Biological is used to describe activities concerned with study of living things. 生物学的
    e.g. … all aspects of biological research associated with leprosy /’leprəsɪ/.与麻风病有关的生物学研究的方方面面
  • ADJ Biological weapons and biological warfare involve the use of bacteria or other living organisms in order to attack human beings, animals, or plants.生物性的(武器、战争)
    e.g. Such a war could result in the use of chemical and biological weapons.这样一场战争可能导致生化武器的使用。
  • ADJ Biological pest control is the use of bacteria or other living organisms in order to destroy other organisms which are harmful t plants or crops. (利用细菌或其他生物对有害生物进行)生物控制的
    e.g. …a consultant on biological control of agricultural pests. …一位农作物害虫生物防治顾问。
  • ADJ A child’s biological parents are the man and woman who caused him or her to be born, rather than other adults who raise him or her. (指父母亲)生身的
    e.g. …foster parents for young teenagers whose biological parents have rejected them. …被亲生父母抛弃的十几岁青少年的养父母们。

fascinate /ˈfæsɪˌneɪt/

  • V-T If something fascinates you, it interests and delights you so much that your thoughts tend to concentrate on it.使着迷
    e.g. Politics fascinated Franklin’s father.政治让富兰克林的父亲着迷。

princeless /ˈpraɪslɪs/

  • ADJ If you say that something is priceless, you are emphasizing that it is worth a very large amount of money, or that it is very important to you although it has little financial value. 无价的强调
    e.g. They are priceless, unique and irreplaceable. 它们是无价的、独一无二的,不可替代的。
  • ADJ If you say that something is priceless, you approve of it because it is extremely useful.宝贵的赞许
    e.g. They are a priceless record of a brief period in Colorado history.它是科罗拉多历史上一段短暂时期的宝贵记录。

typeface /ˈtaɪpˌfeɪs/

  • N-COUNT In printing, a typeface is a set of alphabetical characters, numbers, and other characters that all have the same design. There are many different typefaces.字体
    e.g. … the ubiquitous /juː’bɪkwɪtəs/ Times New Roman typeface. …普遍使用的泰晤士新罗马字体。

font /fɒnt/

  • N-COUNT In printing, a font is a set of characters of the same style and size. 字体
    e.g. … the immense /ɪ’mens/ variety of fonts available in Microsoft Word and Publisher.

typography /taɪˈpɒɡrəfɪ/

  • N-UNCOUNT Typography is the way in which written material is arranged and prepared for printing. 印刷术

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Small Talk

an informal type of discourse that does not cover any functional topics of conversation or any transactions that need to be addressed.

Small talk is conversationfor its own sake.

Examples

Family

How are the kids?

Give my regards to your husband. (say hello to your husband for me)

Why don’t you come over for dinner one of these days?

Using sports for small talk

David: Did you see the game last night?

Jason: No, I missed it. Was it a good game?

Using films for small talk

Sarah: Have you seen the Hangover 3? We went to see it last night.

Jane: How was it?

Sarah: Jason thought it was hilarious, but I was a bit disappointed.

Using people for small talk

A bit windy, but beautiful.

It’s never that hot at this time of the year.

It’s been raining for weeks.

Is this never going to end?

Using weekend for small talk

How did you spend the weekend?

Did you do anything special?

How was your weekend?

Using family for small talk

Robert: How’s Jane doing? I haven’t seen her for ages.

Linda: Oh, she’s fine. She just got a job with the government.

Robert: That’s great news. We should get together one of these days. Sarah would love to see you both, too.

Linda: Sure. That’d be great. …

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Buddhism /ˈbʊdɪzəm/

  • N-UNCOUNT Buddhism is a religion which teaches that the way to end suffering is by overcoming your desires. 佛教

carbon dioxide

g’day /gə’dei/

  • SENTENCE SUBSTITUTE →an austral and nz informal variant of good day

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